How does your house perform? Ask many homeowners and they would look at you in a puzzled way and start to edge towards the door. Ask them how their car performs and you are likely get somewhere in the answer a mention of the miles per gallon. Efficiency of cars is front of mind, that of your house, unless you are unusually familiar with its EPC (Energy Performance Certificate) lurks in the back somewhere behind the more pressing issues of room sizes, quality of kitchen/bathroom and whether it has anywhere to park the car.
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Here you will find the latest articles written by our insulation specialists focusing on product developments, building regulations and technical guidance notes.
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Category Archives: Technical
August’s Technical Twitter Takeover covered timber frame constructions and how you can comply with UK Building Regs Part L 2013 with this build up. Take a look to see if your question has been covered and if you still have further questions, get in touch using #AskCelotex or reply to this blog post.
This post will cover the key design considerations when insulating a floor to achieve a good fabric performance.
When it comes to heat loss through the building envelope, floors are fairly low risk. Only about 15% of heat for an average three bedroom domestic home is lost through floors. This is because heat naturally rises and is lost through other elements such as the roof, walls, doors and windows. In fact I was reading through some old Part L documents and up until as recently as 1990, very little insulation was required for ground floors. I could only read this and look amazed as I mentally filed this information under History. Read more »
Following on from Garage Conversions Part 1: Compliance blog post, we are looking at the key considerations for your garage conversion, with a focus on improving the fabric performance of your floor, walls and roof.
*Note: Since the creation of this post, Celotex GS5000 has been replaced with Celotex GD5000.
To achieve a good quality garage conversion there are three main areas for design and construction professionals to focus on:
- The first is designing and building a good fabric performance to limit heat loss through the building envelope. This means using the correct thickness of insulation to meet the target U-values for the walls, roof and floors, whilst continuing the line of insulation around junctions and openings to limit heat loss and maintain air tightness. The specification of good quality energy efficient windows and doors is also key as they account for the remaining parts of the new thermal envelope.
- The second factor to consider when considering the overall energy efficiency is the choice of fuel and heating systems and thirdly the use of lighting and electrical appliances.
- As Celotex are insulation specialists, the focus of this blog will be on how to achieve a good fabric performance through the garage floor, walls and roof with a few comments about thermal bridging and air tightness.
The floor of a garage is usually a concrete slab which is in direct contact with the ground. It will form part of the new thermal envelope and therefore require insulating to meet 0.25W/m2K U-value. The finished floor level of the concrete floor is usually lower than that of the main house which means there is room to lay Celotex over the slab.
Celotex FR5000 can be laid across the floor slab with the thickness required dependant on the ratio of exposed perimeter to floor area. This is worked out by dividing the exposed internal perimeter in linear metres by the internal floor area in m² to give the perimeter/area ratio.
The floor will need to be finished with a layer of screed or timber boards to form a stable surface for foot traffic and furniture etc. The screed is a minimum of 65mm thick and typically a standard sand and cement mix. The screed laid above the insulation forms a thermal bridge or path of heat loss where it contacts the external wall. This can be eliminated by placing perimeter edge insulation vertically around the edge of the floor slab. The up stand should have a minimum R-value 0.75m2K/W which can be achieved using Celotex TB4020.
An alternative to laying 65mm screed is a 22mm tongue and grooved floating chipboard floor. Laid to manufacturer’s instructions this also provides a stable surface but offers a thinner floor build up which is ideal if space is a premium. A perimeter up stand is not required as the chipboard floor doesn’t present the same path of heat loss. Instead Celotex is butted tightly up to the wall. Any decorative finishes such as carpet or laminated timber boards can then be laid on top of the screed or chipboard floor.
What about membranes…
There are two types of membranes required when upgrading a garage floor. The first is a damp proof membrane. It’s hard to know if one was used when the floor was first constructed, so in the absence of this knowledge it’s a good idea to lay one over the slab before installing the Celotex. This will stop any moisture from below ground rising to cause dampness and damage.
The second membrane is a 1000 gauge sheet of polythene. We recommend laying this over the room side of the Celotex before finishing the floor with a layer of screed or timber boards. This not only acts as a vapour control layer to minimise the risk of interstitial condensation forming on the concrete slab but also stops liquid screed migrating between board joints to form thermal bridges. It also prevents the chemicals in the wet screed reacting with the foil facer to form tiny air bubbles which may potentially weaken the screed.
Garage walls are usually solid masonry and because they were designed to enclose an unheated space they are commonly ‘single’ masonry and 100mm wide. To make them more stable brick piers are often built into the wall. These are generally ‘double’ masonry and 200mm wide. This means they occasionally protrude into the floor area.
When upgrading the walls thermally, because the walls are only 100mm thick its key to design an internal lining system that stops the moisture coming in from outside. The easiest method of dry-lining the wall is to fix 25mm x 47mm timber battens which are lined with dpc strips directly to the wall. This method has the advantage of providing a small cavity between the masonry and internal linings as well as a substrate to fix the insulation board.
Celotex GS5050 is fixed to the battens to insulate the walls. This is a thermal laminate made of 50mm of the highest performing Celotex PIR insulation laminated to a 9.5mm plasterboard. This high performing insulation board has the advantage of giving 0.3W/m2K while taking up a small amount of floor space.
The brick piers if left exposed will bridge through the thermal envelope and become a path for heat loss and present cold spots where surface condensation may form. The line of insulation should be taken around any brick piers rather than butting up either side of them. The idea here is to include them within the thermal envelope. For the same reasons the insulation should be taken into the reveals and soffits of door and window openings. Celotex PL4015 can be used for these smaller areas. This is 15mm of Celotex laminated to 9.5mm plasterboard.
The thermal performance of the junction between the wall and floor is maintained because the Celotex GS5000 is continuous with either the Celotex TB4020 used for the perimeter up stand or Celotex FR5000 under the chipboard floor. As GS5000 is mechanically fixed as opposed to dot and dabbing to the masonry, the continuity of the air barrier around this junction is achieved by sealing the gaps between the skirting board and floor.
A vapour control layer is always required on the room side of the insulation. It stops warm moist air getting behind the insulation and condensing on the surface of the masonry wall to form interstitial condensation. Celotex GS5000 has an integral vapour control layer. It is formed by sealing together the tapered edges of the plasterboard with scrim tape and jointing compound to form an effective barrier with a high vapour resistance. It is equally important to seal around the edges and joints of any service openings such as electric sockets and switches. Sealing between the boards joints and around the edges and openings effectively creates an air tight barrier as well as maintain a vapour control layer and helps minimise air leakage and paths of heat loss.
Single storey garages more commonly have a roof which is flat in construction. The roof is waterproofed with a high moisture resistance membrane such as a bituminous felt. Insulation can be installed between the joists but because the roof covering has high moisture resistance Building Regulations require a 50mm gap for the path of ventilation immediately below the plywood deck. The 50mm path of ventilation is to reduce the risk of interstitial condensation forming on the underside of the plywood deck and settling on the timber rafters. This means the thickness of Celotex FR5000 required is the depth of the joists less 50mm required for the path of ventilation.
The joists are usually not deep enough to fit the thickness of insulation required to achieve the 0.18W/m2K U-value plus allow for the 50mm ventilated airspace above. Celotex GS5000 can be installed as a second layer of insulation to the underside of the joists. It provides a continuous layer of Celotex to meet the target U-value and because it is has a 9.5mm plasterboard finish it also forms the internal ceiling of the new room.
This prevents having to increase the depth of the rafters by fixing timber battens to the bottom of them between which the extra thickness of Celotex can be installed. The use of GS5000 as a continuous line of insulation also limits the unfavourable impact of repeat thermal bridging on the U-value allowing for a thinner solution and so saves on valuable headroom.
The thermal performance of the junction between the flat roof and wall is depends on how they are constructed. The main principle to follow is the insulation used to line the wall internally meets and/or overlaps with the insulation fixed to the underside of the joists. All gaps are sealed along the length of the junction to maintain air tightness.
The importance of a vapour control layer…
Condensation is formed when warm moist air rises and condenses into a liquid on contact with the colder surfaces above the insulation. As warm moist air naturally rises the risk of interstitial condensation with any roof construction needs to be carefully managed. So for this reason a vapour control layer is doubly important when upgrading a garage roof.
As mentioned before, Celotex GS5000 has an integral vapour control layer and blocks warm moist air rising into the pitched roof structure. However, warm moist air by its very nature will always find the passage of least resistance so the use of a 50mm ventilated air gap between the joists in conjunction with a vapour control will effectively manage the small amount of condensation that will inevitably form
The process of a garage conversion passes through a number of stages from the initial idea, obtaining planning permission (if required), preparing a detail design and getting approval from the local building control. It’s at this stage the search for a good builder starts and then the final stage is the construction process.
There are two stages which present the best time to ensure a quality energy efficient conversion. This is the detailed design stage where the correct materials and services are not only specified but also drawn to show they are used together without conflict or compromising a good fabric performance. The second stage is the construction process, that the builder is knowledgeable of the materials specified and is fully skilled in the correct installation. This allows for the as built standards to be equal to the design standards. Both these factors will affect the overall energy efficiency of the conversion and if done to correctly will bring about a new, sustainable and comfortable habitable space.
*Note: Since the creation of this post, Celotex GS5000 has been replaced with Celotex GD5000.
The importance of roofing insulation for energy efficiency
First of all, let’s consider the importance of the roof for ensuring energy efficiency. Warm air has a natural tendency to rise upwards and is lost through the fabric of the roof if it is un-insulated; therefore this element alone can account for as much as 25% of a buildings heat loss.
Insulating along the sloping rafters forms a warm roof and is an option for both new builds and refurbishment projects. The insulation can be installed between the rafters and underneath the rafters to extend the thermal envelope up along the pitch of the roof, allowing for a new heated room within the loft space. This popular application requires some careful design considerations to minimise the risk of interstitial condensation and guidance on how to meet target U-values as set out in the current Building Regulations.
In fact, at the Celotex Technical Centre when it comes to pitched roofs, the most popular questions asked are ‘How much Celotex do I need to meet current Building Regulations? Which Celotex board is the best one to use? Do I need a vapour control layer?’
Well to answer these highly popular questions…
….the thickness of Celotex required to meet a U-value in line with current Building Regulations depends entirely on the depth of the rafters and if there is a requirement to fully ventilate or not.
When does a pitched roof need ventilating…?
….The ventilation requirements of a pitched roof depends on the type of roof membrane used under the tiles or slates and battens to keep moisture or rainwater coming in from outside. If the roof covering or roof membrane is a material of high moisture resistance or impermeable, then the building regulations require a 50mm wide ventilation gap beneath the roofing felt and tiles. This is typical practice when an old fashioned black sarking felt is in place and commonly found in existing buildings.
The 50mm path of ventilation is to reduce the risk of interstitial condensation forming on the underside of the impermeable felt membrane and settling on the timber rafters. It is generally formed by using eaves ventilators and ridge or abutment ventilators. This allows for air to enter in one opening and exit the other forming a cross flow of ventilation. This is known as a ‘fully ventilated’ airspace as opposed to an ‘unventilated’ air space.
Alternatively, an unventilated pitched roof may be designed. The principle applied here is warm moist air rising from below is allowed to permeate through the roof membrane removing the need to fully ventilate the roof. This means the impervious roofing felt with a high moisture resistance is replaced with a more permeable membrane or a breathable membrane. The 50mm ventilation gap, as well as the ridge ventilators, is no longer required but instead the airspace may be left unventilated.
This simplifies the design and leaves more space between the rafters for insulation. The actual airspace required below the membrane is better confirmed by a third party certificate as provided by the manufacturer, but it’s commonly accepted that the airspace can be 25mm or less.
…the thickness of Celotex FR5000 placed between the rafters is the depth of the rafters less the depth of the airspace above. For example, where rafters are 150mm deep and a black sarking membrane is used, then 100mm of FR5000 can be installed which still leaves a 50mm gap for a fully ventilated airspace. Another example, where rafters are 175mm deep and a breathable membrane is used then 150mm FR5000 can be installed while maintaining 25mm unventilated airspace above.
One thing both a ventilated and unventilated roof space have in common is the rafters are not usually deep enough to fit the thickness of insulation required to achieve a target U-value, plus allow for either the ventilated or unventilated airspace above. Celotex GD5000 can be installed as a second layer of insulation to the underside of the rafters. It provides a continuous layer of Celotex to meet the target U-value and because it is has a 12.5mm plasterboard finish it also forms the internal ceiling of the new room.
This prevents increasing the depth of the rafters by fixing timber battens to the bottom of them between which the extra thickness of Celotex can be installed. The use of Celotex GD5000 as a continuous line of insulation also limits the unfavourable impact of repeat thermal bridging on the U-value allowing for a thinner solution and so saves on valuable headroom.
Why do I need a vapour control layer when the roof is ventilated or a breathable membrane is used?
A vapour control layer in conjunction with the correct use of ventilation and roof membranes will effectively eliminate the risk of interstitial condensation. It’s the two design principles working together that minimise the damaging effects of condensation on the timber structure.
Condensation is formed when warm moist air rises and condenses into a liquid on contact with the colder surfaces above the insulation. The idea behind a vapour control layer is to install it on the room side of the insulation so it blocks the passage of warm moist air rising into the pitched roof structure. However, warm moist air by its very nature will always find the passage of least resistance so the use of roof membranes and ventilation will effectively manage the small amount of condensation that will inevitably form.
Celotex GS5000 has an integral vapour control layer built in. It is positioned between the plasterboard and Celotex foam insulation. When the boards are tightly butted together, the tapered edges of the plasterboard are sealed with scrim tape and jointing compound to form an effective vapour control layer with a high vapour resistance.
…beyond the U-value
Insulation is effective within the pitched roof but a strong fabric performance means the design and installation extends beyond the U-value and thicknesses of Celotex. The construction materials used to form the fabric of the roof each have different thermal and moisture properties; how they come together impacts the building physics and the way a building uses energy.
To ensure the roof is built to a high standard the design shows how junctions and openings are insulated and finished to maintain a continuous thermal envelope and air tightness. This plays an important factor when meeting the required energy targets of the current Building Regulations.
The Celotex Technical Team took over the @Celotex twitter account for the afternoon to answer your questions…
This post discusses Building Regulations surrounding garage conversions and how to best comply with them.
Here at the Technical Centre we talk to a lot of people who are converting existing garages into a habitable space. Moving into a bigger house or climbing the property ladder may prove costly for some at a difficult time economically, so the idea of making better use of their existing space is favourable. This makes sense when a lot of garages are typically used to store all sorts of ‘stuff’ and not always the car.
For the building designer, insulation is a year round concern.
Building regulations drive a greater than ever emphasis on sustainable building design – improving the energy efficiency of buildings and reducing carbon dioxide emissions.
However, it is when summer turns to autumn and we begin to reach for our scarves (and thermostats) that the thoughts of many householders turn to insulation.
In the Celotex Technical Centre we field a lot of calls from householders over the colder months, their two primary concerns are upgrading the insulation within their property and condensation.
It is an unfortunate fact of life that energy costs only move in one direction. Upgrading the insulation within your property can reduce your energy costs and improve the comfort of your home.
However, it can be a confusing area for the householder to navigate.
Loft insulation upgrades
One of our most frequently asked questions is how to upgrade a ceiling within a property. Despite years of government initiatives to provide subsidised loft insulation, many houses still have little or no insulation in their roof.
While mineral and glass fibre can be cost effective when used as loft insulation, many householders are reluctant to give up storage space.
A rigid insulation board such as Celotex FR5000 can be laid across the ceiling joists and will be strong enough to take occasional traffic. If the boards are overlaid with chipboard, then the loft can still be used for storage. The Christmas decorations need not find a new home!
When upgrading loft insulation it is critical to ensure the loft is sufficiently ventilated. This will minimise any risk of harmful condensation forming in the roof void. It would also be a good idea the check that any water pipes in the loft are lagged.
Upgrading solid and cavity walls
We are often asked about improving the insulation on uninsulated solid masonry and cavity walls.
An uninsulated masonry wall can make a room feel very cold. Where walls face to the north they can become cold enough for condensation to form – leading to damp patches and mold growth.
This form of surface condensation can be resolved by insulating the wall to a better standard. An insulated plasterboard such as Celotex PL4000 is an excellent choice to upgrade a masonry wall with minimal loss of room space.
Common questions with internal wall lining revolve around condensation, breathability and vapour control layers.
When lining a masonry wall with internal insulation, the masonry behind the insulation can become even colder – as the insulation performs it job and keeps the warmth in the room.
The role of the vapour control layer is to prevent water vapour contained in warm air reaching the cold wall and forming as condensate.
Celotex PL4000 contains an in built vapour control layer that allows masonry walls to be lined without causing a condensation risk.
When considering lining any solid wall, it is important to assess the wall for potential moisture ingress.
Insulation can greatly improve the quality of our life. Whatever your project, speak to the Insulation Specialists.